Conditional Access is a feature of Azure Active Directory which allows for granular control over authentications in the identity provider.
Typically used to manage access for users, you can also use it to manage authentication for applications. In our instance our script will be the user accessing the application that is Graph API.
Conditional Access can use many various signals to allow granular and intelligent access and session control for all logins through Azure AD. Conditional Access is a key component of the Microsoft identity platform.